Alexander Turney Stewart (1803 1876) began working at 15 in Belfast as a grocery bag boy, soon leaving with $500 for New York, where he worked as a tutor. With an inheritance from his grandfather, in 1823 he launched A.T. Stewart and Company at 283 Broadway, piling the sidewalk with products so that the messy clutter in front of the store and pushing crowds advertised the business. His Marble Palace of 1848 is considered "the cradle of the department store", and his cast-iron Palace built in 1862 on Ladies Mile occupied a full city block, employing thousands in thirty departments. By 1876 Stewart owned textile factories, branches around the world and a lucrative mail-order business. At his death he was one of the richest men in New York, just behind Vanderbilt and Astor.