The son of an itinerant, young John Davison Rockefeller (1839 1937) earned extra money raising turkeys, selling potatoes and candy, and loaning small sums of money to neighbors. He established oil refiner Rockefeller & Andrews in 1865 then Standard Oil of Ohio in 1870, which by 1880 was refining over 90% of the oil in America. In 1882 he created The National Petroleum Exchange, gradually approaching complete control of oil refining and marketing in the US. The world's richest man, Rockefeller took the new elevated train to his downtown office daily despite personal threats and constant pleas for charity. Advised after 1891 by Frederick Taylor Gates, he funded the University of Chicago in 1900, the General Education Board in 1903, and scores of initiatives in public health, basic science and the arts.